Current Research Efforts

The University of Michigan Human Trafficking Collaborative includes members from a variety of disciplines conducting research on trauma-informed care; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; and human trafficking survivor, healthcare provider, and system needs. They utilize a variety of methods including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches with community involvement.

This research has helped inform the content, resources, and educational components of this website. To find out more information about the team’s research endeavors, please see below.

Trauma-informed education and care among healthcare providers is essential to prevent retraumatization. It also takes into consideration patient-centered communication and the trauma experienced in childhood, often referred to as adverse childhood experiences. Trauma-informed care and patient-centered care are important tools for service providers to use with patients who have experienced trauma including childhood trauma and human trafficking.

Munro-Kramer, M.L., Beck, D. C., Martin, K. E., Carr, B. (under review). Understanding human trafficking from the health system perspective: A facility survey in Michigan.

Coxen, J., Castro, V., Carr, B., Bredin, G., Guikema, S. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on online sex advertising and sex trafficking.


Munro-Kramer, M., Beck, D., Choi, K., Singer, R., Gebhard, A., & Carr, B. (2020). Human Trafficking Victim’s Service Needs and Outcomes: An Analysis of Clinical Law Data

Journal of Human Trafficking

6(1), 95-108. doi:10.1080/23322705.2019.1574476

Choi, K. R., Beck, D. C., Khan, M. A., Bell, S. A., Beza, L., & Munro-Kramer, M. L. (2020). A qualitative needs assessment of human trafficking in Ethiopia: recommendations for a comprehensive, coordinated response.

International Journal for Equity in Health

19(1), 1-11. doi:10.1186/s12939-020-1154-4.

Accessible at

Kuzma, E. K., Pardee, M., & Morgan, A. (2020). Implementing Patient-Centered Trauma-Informed Care for the Perinatal Nurse.

The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing

34(4), E23-E31.

Li, Y., Cannon, L. M., Coolidge, E. M., Darling-Fisher, C. S., Pardee, M., & Kuzma, E. K. (2019). Current state of trauma-informed education in the health sciences: Lessons for nursing.

Journal of Nursing Education

58(2), 93-101.

Rosemberg, M. A., Gultekin, L., & Pardee, M. (2018). High-ACE low wage workers: Occupational health nursing research and praxis through a trauma-informed lens. 

Workplace Health & Safety

66(5), 233-240.

Pardee, M., Kuzma, E., Dahlem, C. H. G. Y., Boucher, N., & Darling‐Fisher, C. S. (2017). Current state of screening high‐ACE youth and emerging adults in primary care. 

Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners

29(12), 716-724.

Pardee, M., Kuzma, E., Dahlem, C. H. G. Y., Boucher, N., & Darling‐Fisher, C. S. (2017). Current state of screening high‐ACE youth and emerging adults in primary care. 

Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners

29(12), 716-724.

Pardee, M., Munro-Kramer, M. L., Bigelow, A., & Dahlem, G. (2016). Domestic minor sex trafficking: Missed clinical opportunities

Clinical Advisor.

Accessible at


Beck, D. C., Choi, K. R., Munro-Kramer, M. L., & Lori, J. R. (2016). Human trafficking in Ethiopia: A scoping review to identify gaps in service delivery, research, and policy.

Trauma, Violence, & Abuse

18(5), 532-543. doi:10.1177/1524838016641670


Carr, B. (2012). When federal and state systems converge: foreign national human trafficking victims within juvenile and family courts. 

Juvenile and Family Court Journal

63(1), 77-90.

Carr, B. (2011). Examining the reality of foreign national child victims of human trafficking in the United States. 

Wash. UJL & Policy

37, 183.

Carr, B. A. (2011). Introduction to Special Symposium Feature: Successes and Failures in International Human Trafficking Law.

Much can be learned from screening practices, resource provision, and service delivery for intimate partner violence and sexual violence. Some of the research team’s work has focused specifically on these topics and in this website has considered how these principles can be applied to other forms of gender-based violence like human trafficking.

Did you know?


Forced labor in the private economy generates an estimated $150 billion in illegal profits per year.


At any given time in 2016, an estimated 40.3 million people are in modern slavery.


Their are 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 people in the world.

If you are in the United States and you need help or you want to learn more about human trafficking:

Call: 1 (888) 373-7888
National Human Trafficking Hotline
SMS: 233733 (Text “HELP” or “INFO”)
Hours: 24 hours, 7 days a week
Languages: English, Spanish, and 200 more languages

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